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it’s always a pleasureto be here and to see so many new faces and i wouldn’t sayold faces but longtime friends. well, let’s see. last year i describedfor you a model, mathematical model ofthe birkeland current, the cross-section ofthe birkeland current and what it looks like, howit counter-rotates inside and how it manages to go fromthe sun to the earth, to saturn and create the aurorason those planets..

and i thought maybe this year we take a look at the other end,not the aurora but the sun end and talk a little bitabout the solar wind because birkeland, when he came up with theidea of what the auroras were caused by, said they were corpuscles, electrical corpuscles that werecoming from the sun to the earth. of course he was laughedat severely for that but we now knowthat that is true. and astronomers, instead of calling it thebirkeland wind or giving him credit for it,

they just call itthe solar wind. so it’s a bunch of, essentially,protons and electrons that come off the sunin steady-state. now i’m not talking about, of course,cmes, coronal mass ejections or flares or any of the transient phenomenathat happened but the steady-state dc as ben would say, currents that arecoming from the sun as a normal thing. one might ask why thesolar wind is important and i think that ben hasdone a very good job of talking about why it’s important thatwe know what’s coming off of the sun.

it’s obviously a streamof charged particles that speeds up to about amillion miles an hour. that’s moving. and before it streamspast the earth. and disturbancesin the solar wind pump energy into the earth’sradiation belts and polar regions. space weather clearly,as ben points out, can change the orbit of satellites, shortenmission lifetimes, create all sorts of havoc. the solar wind distorts theearth’s magnetic field

and this causes current surges in transmissionlines and pretty much we know this. so i’m not going to mentionthose things again. what i’m going to talk about, ithink, i hope, for the first time, is some of the lesser knownproperties of the solar wind and most importantly howwell those properties, those very subtle propertiesof the solar wind fit in exactly with ralphjuergens’ electric sun model. and so as i’ve said so many times beforeyou can’t prove anything in science, you can disprove butyou can’t prove it.

but you can always addsupporting evidence. you can build that wall like the da triesto build a wall of evidence that is insurmountable by the defense andthis is, "no he really killed him". this is what we’retrying to do here and that is to build that wall ofevidence that says, "you betcha!". the sun is electric. we don’t know whether it’s poweredcompletely by electricity, we think it might bebut we don’t know. but one thing we know for certainand that is that the effects,

the major phenomenon that wesee on the surface of the sun, those phenomena are electric and i’dlike to show you in some detail what, why i say thatand what’s going on. so there are actually twodifferent types of solar winds. perhaps some of you know that. and i’d like to explain thereasons why these properties are quite differentfrom each other. the standardmainstream finds these observations to be quote"enigmatic" as always.

they’re not enigmatic,they’re very simple. elegantly simple. i’d like to explain how the differentpoints of origin on the surface of the sun explain those differences between those twodifferent types of solar wind that we see. one of the things that, bythe way i should say that one of the things i want toshow you is a short video clip that monty childs was kind enough tolend to me from the safire project. that shows that the thingsthat i’m talking about here, as far as juergensmodel is concerned,

are being repeated hereon earth in monty’s lab. so the juergens’ sun model wasproposed in the early 70’s and today i’m trying to proposea slight extension to that. and this, these proposalsthat i’m trying to make are based on juergens’,ralph juergens’ work and also on something that i came up withand presented 3, 4 years ago called, i call it the transistor modelof the sun because the sun.. we’ll talk about in a minute. but sun surface works very analogouslyto the way a pnp transistor works.

and we’ll see that in..briefly at least. anyway, again to state theobvious, we all probably know that the major three layers onthe sun that are are important, and as you, if you come toward the sunin the order in which you see them, would be the corona, thechromosphere and the photosphere. now the corona is perhaps themost beautiful thing in the sky. it is this colorful, it’s.. those are of course the samecolors that we see in the aurora. and why, becauseit’s the same thing.

it is plasma in the glow mode. and it is the same sort ofstuff, helium, hydrogen.. mostly hydrogen,excited electrically. again, everything i say please askyourself while i’m saying it, how does the.. how does thestandard model explain this? the standard model has no explanation forwhy a corona exists in the first place! if.. if the sun is just a nuclearfurnace like a wood stove.. my wood stove doesn’tglow like that! and so clearly, everything that weobserve around the surface of the sun,

including the corona, iselectrical in nature. hm.. one other commentand that is that you can’t see anything in thenight sky that isn’t plasma. "oh yeah, i can see the moon!" but of course the moon is reflectedsunlight and sunlight is plasma. the sun, well all oflight that we see if you look at jupiter through atelescope or saturn or any other planet, you’re seeing reflectedplasma light and the, we’ll talk about the photosphere andwhere that light comes from in a minute.

but the corona is pretty big thing,it extends out about 3 solar radii. if you look at half thewidth of that disk and then the 123, it takes you outabout the corner of that picture. and you can see, that’s aboutthe extent of the corona. so it’s large. the sun is what, 865 thousandkilometers across, something like that? the chromosphere, the second layergoing in, contains these spicules. spicules.. we’ve all heard,you know, the pines of rome.. spicules are thefountains of the sun.

not the fountains of rome. but anyway, they havecertain characteristics. the spicules are reallytowering fountains of electrons that come up out of the sun and thenback into the sun again immediately if our assumption is correct. juergens’ assumption that thesun has a positive charge. those electrons once spewed are veryquickly brought back into the sun again. that’s what the spicules are. the photosphere iswhere the action is

and that’s what we’re goingto be talking about mostly. the, the photosphereconsists of these things that the astronomers calledphotospheric granules. more proper name forthem is anode tufts. the anode tufts consistof plasma in the arc mode and i’ve heard allsorts, even my, one of my good friends thinks the sunis liquid hydrogen or something.. it better be prettyhot liquid because plasma in the arc mode puts outa horrific amount of power.

and as a matter of fact, buti should say this, those those granules come andgo with time, they grow, they get bright and theyshrink and they go away. the power put out by thesun is really fantastic. that is to say, the theradiation from the sun, every square inch of the sun’s surfaceon average puts out 42,000 wats. if you can think of whatabout a square mile.. that’s.. it’s not, it’s not boilinganything, it’s arc mode plasma. the temperature of thosegranular granules or tufts

is about 6000 kelvin,which is pretty.. you wouldn’t want to spend your summervacation there but it’s in relation to the.. to the temperatureof the lower corona, which is 2 million kelvin, it’snot, it’s a medium temperature. anyway, the, there’s apicture of the granules. that’s a movie. if you look at it very carefullyyou can see it moving. it’s a real time motionpicture of the granules. if you keep your eye onone, especially near the..

i think that white stuff in the center isa bunch of spicules coming up through.. i don’t know, but i thinkthat’s what it is. and you see the they’re, they’reall over the place let’s see. there’s some down here,there’s some over here, up here and of course abunch of them here.. if you keep your eyes on the granules themselves, you seethem shrinking away to nothing and the question is,why do they do that? well, there’s a typicalsunspot and you might say,

well what’s a sunspot? sunspots are where thephotospheric tufts are not. it’s a region where thephotospheric tufts don’t exist. and so there’s been a good deal of workdone on the laboratory on anode tufts and we’ll talk some about that. the main, well, focus, i would say, ofjuergens’ sun model is an anode tuft. how does the anode tuft work? that’s one of the things i’d liketo spend some time on this morning. there is of course the penumbra, that’sthat orange ring that you can see.

the dark inner areais called the umbra and the temperatures in theumbra have been measured, well, just something inworth of 3000 kelvin. so the umbra obviously is muchcooler than the normal spots, i’m sory, the normal tufts which are the theyellow region around the outside there. anyway, i said that monty had sent me someinteresting pictures from from safire. there is one. now the, the purple wine glassin the back is not real. monty has not been drinking, that’sjust an aberration of the photograph.

this was takeninside a bell jar. and he has managed, he and his team havemanaged to actually create anode tufts. the center / bright purplething is a spherical halo, it’s distorted some by theshape of the bell jar. it’s pretty sphericaland it’s the anode and riding on top of thatanode are anode tufts. and so, the major propertyof these anode tufts is that they’re made upof positive charges. and as such, you can think to yourself,just basic knowledge of electricity..

if those things are each onea group of positive charges then they don’t like each other. they’re going to berepelling each other and so you see they’re quite evenlyspaced over the surface of the sphere. and as you’ll see in a minutewhen monty increases the current he increases the number of tufts and heincreases the brightness of the tufts and finally they turn intosomething in the arc mode just like we see on thesurface of the sun. so the, as i said before,i think i said before,

the main basis of theof the juergens model is an analysis of those tufts so we’re going to be thinking of travellingin a line, if you can visualize, from the purple surface there,the surface of the anode, up through the tuft andthen out beyond the tuft. and let’s think what, whatwould we expect to see there. i’ll tell you what juergens expected tosee there and i think it’s exactly what monty is seeing and is going tosee in the safire experiment. anyway, juergens’ electricsun model and there it is,

you’ve seen that picture many times,every time i talk, i think i show it. it’s fairly complicated but let’s takeit one step at a time and i think, i think you can seewhat i’m saying. the upper one of the threegraphs there is a plot.. well on all three of them thehorizontal axis is the radial distance, up from the surface of the sun, up throughthe tuft and out into the corona. the top graph plots thevoltage that you would see if you had a voltmeter in your hand andcould have a ground someplace out in space and look at the various, thevoltage, the voltage varies

as you come up out of the sun through thetuft and then out the top of the tuft. on the left-hand margin ofthe left-hand axis there, the vertical axis that’s labeledenergy per unit charge, that’s volts. energy, that’s what voltage is. a positive chargehas more energy if it’s at a high voltage thenif it’s at a low-voltage. the analogy is, that’s the cross-sectionof a mountain and the positive charge, the analogy thereis a tennis ball. so suppose you threw atennis ball on top of the..

i’m sorry didn’t i got ahead of myself here,no i didn’t, i’m sorry, this is fine. i’m looking at the next slide. i’m cheating on you guys. the tennis ball thrown onthe top of the photosphere, well if you throw abunch of them there and they begin to have asort of a billiard game at the top on that horizontalsurface of the photosphere, if one of the tennis ballsgoes too far to the left, that is to say betweenthe axis and point a,

it will roll off down the hillwith increasing velocity. same thing if if one getsbounced over beyond point b. can you see point b there? and gets onto that ski jump thati’ve labeled the chromosphere. it will accelerateoff to the right. the second plot, the middle plot thereif you can read it, the axis says, the outward electrical field which is force per unit chargelabeled in volts per meter. so the electric field, for those ofyou who have learned any physics,

is the negative of the gradient ofthe voltage, what i mean by that. well look at the voltageand if it’s sloping, if it’s going down that’s a negativeslope like in the chromosphere. that means that the electric fieldto produce that is positive, it’s the negative ofwhat the slope does. so we’re, say, if you start at thevertical axis of the the upper plot, you can see that the voltage is increasingas you move from the axis to point a. so, the voltage in the middle ofthe tuft is the highest voltage that you’re going to seein this whole area.

and to get up there, to get thatpositive slope on the voltage, the electric fieldis, is negative. now it’s, it’s morenegative right at the axis because the voltage curveis steepest there. i don’t know if you.. if you don’tfollow me don’t worry about it, if you do you see whati’m talking about. at the top of the photospherewhere the voltage curve is flat there is no electricfield, there is no force on the tennis ball pushinghim one way or the other.

but if the tennis ball, i.e.the positive charge, gets over beyond point b,there is a positive volt.. positive electric field and that willtend to accelerate it toward the right. the bottom curve is nothingbut the resulting velocity. so clearly, once you get.. think of all three plots,if you get at the point b and slightly to theright of point b, the force is positive,outer force is positive. the electric field is positiveand getting bigger and the,

and the force is maximumwhere the slope is steepest. the skier is accelerating most rapidlyat the steepest part of the ski jump. and so the voltage, i’msorry, the velocity – the bottom curve, iscontinuing to increase it in.. the increase in velocity, theacceleration, is maximum at point c. once you get beyond point d, there’sno more force on the skier, the tennis ball or the positive ionand so the velocity is constant. but it’s moving. it’s fast. instead of talking about analogieslet me say it straight out.

a positive ion is acceleratedby a voltage drop. the higher the voltage drop, thehigher the resulting velocity. it’s like saying, if youdrop a rock from a height, to drop it from one foot it will get to acertain velocity when it hits the floor, if you drop it from 10feet it’s going faster. ok, that’s all of this. the red marking thereon the lower curve just talks about the region ofturbulence and that is as these, as this stream of ions goes out into thelower corona, there are some collisions.

collisions mean, that’swhat temperature is, right? most people, i think theaverage person at least, has a very poor idea aboutwhat’s a temperature. i know it’s hot outsidebut how, what is it? it’s a measure of thevibration of the atoms in the stuff that you’re talkingabout the temperature of. what’s the temperature in space? there’s no temperature in spaceunless you’re in a cloud of stuff. you have, you have to talkabout the temperature of

whatever it isyou’re dealing with. lastly, in the in the central curvethere, the electric field curve, you’ll see there’s some blue areasand some salmon colored areas. this is strictly frommaxwell’s equations. if you’re going to have anincreasing electric field, doesn’t make any difference whatthe sign of the electric field is, if it’s negative or positive,makes no difference. if the electric field is increasing,you’re in a region of plus charge and you can see that’s whathappens there right next to the,

the vertical axisin the middle plot. so, that’s thepositive charge layer. where the photosphere, thevoltage is not changing, there is no electric fieldso there is no charge. and the little triangle out around,between points b, c and d, the electric field is at firstincreasing and then decreasing, always in the same direction. the outward force isstill positive outward but that force is increasing for a while andthen decreasing for a while back to zero.

that’s the famous double layer. you’re going to hear people inhere talk about double layers. hannes alfven was famous fordouble layers, irving langmuir got the nobel prize for hiswork with double layers. that’s a double layer! that’s all it is,that is what it is. why don’t those positivecharges and negative charges come together andneutralize each other? why do they stay separate?

irving langmuir found out. that’s why he gotthe nobel prize. there has to be a continualcurrent through that double layer in order to keep it stable. and the reason that the spicules pull, fountain those electronsup through the chromosphere is so that they can come back andsatisfy langmuir’s requirement that that double layer has tohave electrons and positive ions. so it all seems to work.

langmuir’s work, the double layer, hannesalfven’s work and now juergens’ work. all works the way it does andit’s, it all, it all correlates. anyway i’d like to show you this,courtesy of monty, this short video clip. the first thing you’re goingto see is a set of anode tufts under very lowcurrent excitation and then the currents goingto increase in strength and the plasma tufts are goingto go into the arc mode.. you’ll see the photosphere,there they are. they don’t like each other.

it’s like a bunch of kabukiwarriors pushing each other away. they’re both, they’re allpositive and they’re all looking for advantageand not finding any. you might hear monty’s voice in thebackground if they have the audio on.. there’s this increaseof the current. the tufts have begun to gointo that’s, i know the word, it is a high glow mode or..that’s arc mode. you can see now, it’s a better modelthat you can see the sun spots, sunspots are wherethere are no tufts.

there’s something that, he’s got the excitationsuch that it looks like the chromosphere. that little black thing in the bottom, iguess, michael can tell me what it is. is this a spectroscopic probeor it’s a probe of some sort? there’s the corona. the ring around theoutside is the cathode. and, of course, in the model, in thesafire model, you need a cathode. but in real space of course there is acathode, there is a virtual cathode. but there’s the, the corona. the reason, the reason that the coronathere looks like it’s only on one side

is because the, the anodeis closer to the cathode on that spot whereyou get the corona. if they were equally spaced you’dsee the corona all the way around. sorry for the hooky ending, that’s a, that’s whatstanley kubrick used, it’s the end of 2001the space odyssey, but i really do believe thatthat’s, it is the beginning. okay, down to business. there are two different typesof solar wind and this diagram,

it looks complicated as all get-outbut it’s not, it’s very simple. it, forget the nicepicture of the sun. just, it’s there for eyewash. this is a radial graph. the farther out youget from the center, it talks about thevelocity of the solar wind so you can see that at latitudes,of, higher than 30 or so degrees and actually lower thannegative 30 degrees, the maximum velocityof the solar wind

is somewhere around 800kilometers per second. maybe they’re here, it’s more like600, they say it’s about 800. in the equatorial plane of the sun younotice that the diagram sort of collapses, the maximum speed of solarwind is low, it’s about 400. this is a picture obviously, look at theupper left, from ulysses, the ulysses probe – swoops, that stands for "solar windobservation over the poles of the sun". you’re kidding? they didn’t get over the poles! you see the diagram stops there, theydon’t know what’s going on up there.

but they did get toabout 85 degrees or so. but ulysses, when it got to 85degrees, it was way out beyond jupiter so this is not aclosed-in measurement. and what is, the plot here is what theymeasure at about one astronomical unit, which is where we are. on the upper pole,what ben was saying, the the upper half of thisis sort of tinged in red and the lower halfis tinged in blue and you notice on the lowerleft it says, the outward imf.

outward interplanetarymagnetic field is coming from the northat this, at this point, and then back in to thesouthern hemisphere. but that’s from nasa. anyway, the fast solar windcomes from normal regions from higher solar latitudes. this is where we begin to divide intotwo different kinds of solar winds. a fast wind is one that comes fromthe, not in the equatorial region, and it gets up to about 800kilometers per second.

the, it comes from normalregions, that is to say, it comes out of the tops of the solar,of the photo.. photospheric tufts. out of the, out ofthe anode tufts. the slow solar wind comes fromactive regions on the sun’s surface, in other words sun spots. sunspots mainly are, they wander all overthe place but they’re very often in, generally in the what you’d saythe tropical zone of the sun. the near, near the equator. so just to state it succinctly,

the fast solar wind emanates from regionson the sun where there are no sunspots, generally at more than20 degrees latitude. and it comes out of the topsof the photospheric tufts. it approaches 800kilometers per second and it gets to that maximumat about nine radii. it’s not too far out. i used to think itaccelerated beyond jupiter. it doesn’t, not too much anyway. another interesting thing is, it’sless dense, it carries fewer ions

than the slow solar wind. so it goes faster but it carries, it’sless dense, it carries less stuff. question is why? well, i would suggest,this is the reason why. there’s that firstvoltage curve again and the purple is an area where there areexcited ions trying to leave the sun. sun, remember, is positive, positive ionsdon’t like that, so they’re out of here. it’s kind of like the cross-sectionof a dam at the end of a reservoir. the reservoir is the purplearea in the upper left

and so you can, i thinkyou can visualize that if the most excitable, the mostexcited, the most energetic positive ion in that distance, inthat, close to the surface area, is just higher than the voltageof the photospheric tuft, some of those positive ions can trickleover the top of the dam, if you will, and just down the.. get accelerateddown through the corona, down through the chromosphereinto the lower corona. it’s sort of reasonable that therewouldn’t be too much density in that. it doesn’t, not too many of these guysare able to make it over the top.

so although they drop far and they’re goinglike crazy when they hit the bottom, there are not too many of them. because not many of them are ableto get over the top of the tuft. so that’s the reason why the fast solarwind is fast but it’s less dense, at least that’s what thejuergens’ model says. there’s a sort of analogy. that’s hoover dam or partof its associated dams. the hoover dam isup the road there. a high-velocity,low-density flow.

the water, not much water,gets over the dam there. even less would get over if youraised that wall a little bit and that’s my solartransistor model. this is kind of like the, emitter, the base and thecollector of a pnp transistor. if you raise the voltage on thebase you cut off the current. so again, the velocity ishigh but the density is low. there is some turbulenceat the bottom but it’s intentional inthis hydraulic analogy.

you can see they putrocks along the bottom. they’re trying to aerate thewater before it gets past. if you could take those rocks away andmake that a nice smooth concrete surface, there wouldn’t be any.. that would minimize theturbulence anyway. how about the slow solar wind? it emanates from the equatorialregion mainly, from sunspots. the maximum velocity is about400 kilometers per second and the ion density is more than 3times denser than the fast solar wind.

ok, so the slowsolar wind is slow but it’s got a lotof stuff in it. my, sort of my thought analysis,my memory crutch on this is that the fast solarwind is like a sports car. goes like hell but it doesn’t havemuch space for the groceries. the slow solar wind’slike a dumptruck. goes slowly but boycan it carry stuff! so, the ion density is more than 3times denser than the fast solar wind. so again the question is, why?

well, is there ananalogy for this one? well, remember we said thatthe slow solar wind emanates from regions where thereare lots of sunspots. what’s a sunspot? sunspot is a place wherethere aren’t any tufts. the dam is gone. somebody put a hole in the dike and there’s nothingto prevent the water. i used a, i’ll show you a slidein a minute, that i used to show

this hydraulic analogy of the slowsolar wind and i chose a bad one. the real analogy forthe slow solar wind, and if i’ve done it right i would havegotten a photograph of the mississippi river right after hurricanekatrina busted the dike. so that the water in themississippi isn’t much higher, that’s what, 8 feet or sohigher than the ground outside and when you break thedike, the water, the voltage drop, the hydrostatic head, if youwish, is not very high. so there’s no really high velocitybut when that dyke breaks,

wow is there a flow. so it’s again, the slow solar wind is aregion of high density, low velocity flow. it’s like a broken dike. anyway, that’s another movie and i’ve heard people decrythat that cannot happen; "is that what you’re seeing, don’tbelieve your lying eyes, believe me. i’m gonna tell youwhat happened." no, that’s what reallyhappens and that’s a picture of what the penumbralfilaments look like.

and it’s kind ofinteresting that.. i maintain and youthink of it yourself, the umbra is a place wherethere aren’t any any tufts. so if you look at a cross sectionof this thing, you can see tufts, tufts, tufts, tufts, tufts, they’reall pushing on each other, you know, the samurai warriors, theydon’t like each other.. but when it comes to the edge of theplace where there aren’t any tufts, these guys don’t have anything tohold them back so they fall in. and you can seethat’s happening.

the reason i say you can see ithappen is, concentrate on the, on the circular ring right onthe outside of the penumbra, right between the yellow and the,what-is-it, ochre colored areas. you can see that the regulartufts, the yellow area, right near where the tufts arebreaking away, are going outward. can you see that? when the tufts in thepenumbra are going inward. sure they hate each other, they’re bothpositive, groups of positive charges. they’re elbowing each other and so whenthe group that is not being held back

by anything and just falls off,when it starts to flow, to move, it’s still pushingon the other guys. the space is opening up and sosome fall in and some fall away. so there’s, i think that that isproof, the fact that the yellow ones actually move outward while theother ones are moving inward when space opens up forthem to be able to move, shows that what you’re seeingis an electric reaction. it’s not a gravitationalreaction, at least i maintain it’s not.

the analogy, of course, isthe calving of icebergs. you get a glacier and you got the oceanor whatever that water is out there and these things eventuallybreak loose and fall in. in this case this guy that’s fallingin, the process of falling in, is not pushingon anything. so there’s no tendency for the tufts,if you will, the potential icebergs there in the wall of the glacier, there’sno tendency for them to move away. because nothing ispushing on them. only gravity is pulling theone down that’s falling in.

this is not the case, sothis is a partial analogy. it is sort of like, makes you thinkabout what is happening on the sun. but on the sun, this guy that’s fallingis pushing back like crazy on the one that he just came awayfrom and he’s moving back. here’s again that picture and thisis what i claim is happening. just look at the red dot,dotted line there for a second. the voltage v2, the higher voltage is thevoltage of the, of the photospheric tuft. v1 is the voltage of the umbra. and ions in the umbra look upand they don’t see anything.

they just … it’s outer spaceout there, that’s the corona. so they tend to fallalong that dotted path, the dashed red curve is a voltageprofile taken up through an umbra. and how many of them are there? zillions! because there’s a lot of positive ionsinside the sun that would love to get out and the only reason they can’t all getout is because in a lot of there is the, the photosphere granulesthat the dam stops them. but at an umbra thereis no dam wall.

that’s d.a.m. so they flood out voluminously but theydon’t fall from such a high height. they fall from v1 out to the lowvoltage of the solar.. of the corona. whereas the fast solar windions that come over the top, they leak over the top of the dam andgo all the way down in front of it. they fall from voltage v2 so the fastsolar wind comes over the top of the dam, screams down that cor.. chromosphere, skijump if you will and fly out the bottom. the slow solar wind,many more of them because they don’t have tojust trickle over the top.

they just go. so the slow solar windhas a lot of ions in it but they’re not going as fastcause they don’t drop as far. there is a sideview of a sunspot. what you’re seeing of course, if you listen to mainstreamastronomers they say; "well that’s a magnetic field!" that’s not the magneticfiled, that’s plasma! you don’t see magnetic fields,magnetic fields are invisible.

so are electric fields,they’re invisible too. but plasma, no,you can see that, and so you you’re seeing therethe side view of a sunspot and the plasma is pouringup out of that sun spot. over on the edge, on the lower right,that’s where, that’s a normal tufts. here are they. stuff is still coming outbut much less of it. so that’s the reason why there’s theslow, the voluminous slow solar wind and the very fast but not veryvoluminous fast solar wind.

there’s the slide i wishi didn’t put in there. i should have shown apicture of a broken dike. this is an interesting thing. this is the reversing falls. i think it’s anational monument. does anybody know where it is? i think it’s up in montana ormaybe idaho, i’m not sure. but this is a, it’s not a man-madething, it’s a natural thing. it’s the reversing falls and it converts afraction of, or all, of the kinetic energy

that’s coming down from the upperleft, into potential energy. in other words it it’scoming down from the upper left as a ratherlarge volume of water. when it hits this stagnant, stable,placid pond into which this thing flows, there’s a collision ofthose atoms of water. then there is, there’sa turbulence. the electrical analogy of course is thatyou’ve got a high-current coming down hitting a place wherethere are static ions. and there’s a collisionand the kinetic energy

is turned back into potentialenergy, higher voltage. and so what you get, the electrical analogy of thatturbulent high bunch of water is a concentration of positive ionsright at the bottom of the ski-jump. a concentration of positive ions is agood place for an e-field to begin and that e-field, i claim, iswhat accelerates the solar wind. here’s a sort of a wrap-up slidethat shows, it shows it all. you can see the photosphere, you cansee the sun spots there to the center, to right of center..

and then coming out of that is atremendous flow of slow solar wind. at the chromosphere, there’s collisions withthe stable static ions in the chromosphere and in the corona even more so. to the, to the left, so themiddle left of the corona you see one of thefamous coronal holes. coronal holes hooo, mystery. there’s nothing mysteriousabout a coronal hole at all. it’s just above oneof the normal posit.. normal places on the,on the photosphere.

it’s, the coronal hole is notwhere there’s sun spots. that’s all it really is. and so, what comes outof the coronal hole? the fast solar wind! sure, where is it coming from? it’s coming from the tuftsin the photosphere. so it all makes sense. it’s elegantly simple. here is, i have to put thisin because i think it’s a,

it really says whati’d like to say. this is by r.r. grail,he’s a very well-known or was a very well knownsolar astronomer. he said; "our results inmeasuring the solar wind indicate that the acceleration of the solarwind is almost complete by ten solar radii, much closer to the sun that hadbeen expected." okay, good. "this suggests that theacceleration of the solar wind and the heating of the solar coronaoccur in essentially the same region and thus that the underlyingmechanisms may be strongly linked.

they’re not strongly linked,it’s the same thing! it’s the same mechanism, there’s onlyone mechanism and that’s what does it. juergens’ model says it all. and all of these properties of the fast solarwind, the slow solar wind, the densities.. are all explained by..ok, one sort of just, i would call it a technical slidebut it’s, it’s the statistics. what they say, statistics don’tlie but statisticians do. here’s the statisticsso they don’t lie. the two columns are; one for the slow solarwind and one for the fast solar wind.

the first line isthe flow speed. and you’re talking about thevelocity of protons, vp. and so the slow solar wind’s highest velocityis around 400 kilometers per second, by fast solar windit’s about 800. i hope you guys in theback can read this. the proton density however, in the slowsolar wind, is 10.7 per cubic centimeter. in the fast solar wind it’s 3. so the fast solar wind is, containsone-third less than the slow solar wind. the proton temperature is, if you go downthere, it’s a 2.3 times ten to the fifth.

it looks like you’re comparing2.3 to 3.4 but you’re not. 3.4 is multiplied by 10 to the fourth soit’s kind of like comparing 3.4 to 23. ok, so the fast solar wind,that proton temperature is much higher than theslow solar wind, why? because it’s been through the mixmaster,it’s been through the ski jump. then look at, and this is the lastthing i will look at this page, the electron temperature. it’s just the opposite. the electron temperature is 1.3 in thesolar wind and 1.0 in the fast wind.

so the electrons don’ttake part in this. why? because the electrons don’t go overthe hill, they don’t get excited. that hill is a hillonly for positive ions. if you want to know what happens toelectrons, you have to take that cross-section of the of thedam and turn it upside down. if you turn it upside downit looks like a saucepan. so if electrons are coming intothe sun from the lower corona, they collect in the saucepan.

what’s the saucepan? it’s the photospheric tuft. the electrons come pouring in, happy aslarks, because they’re coming downhill, "yeah here we are we’re goingto collect in the pan" and they build up and build up more andmore electrons and finally what do they do? they neutralize the positive chargesand they kill the photospheric tuft. that’s why the photospherictufts disappear. they fill up withincoming electrons. anyway there’s more i can say about thatbut i’m running out of the time here.

the only quantitativelydetermined force capable of achieving a fast solar windacceleration is the electric force. and i did some work on this. i won’t bore you withthe mathematics but i simply would say that myfinal result is step 3 there. i’ve derived the electric fieldstrength necessary to accelerate the fast solar wind to 800kilometers per second. all sorts of people have triedto do that and have failed to come up with a mechanism.

remember, the corona is anon collisional corona. it’s non-collisional plasma. they don’t bounce off each other,they just increase in velocity. and if you put a positive ion in anelectric field, it will do just that. well how strong thiselectric field have to be? there is the answer, less than seventenths of a micro volt per meter. at a distance of about three solarradii, the end of the corona. seven-tenths of amicro volt per meter. monty, that’s your next job.

find out whether or not aglow mode plasma can support an electric field of seven tenthsof a micro volt per meter. if it can, that’s the answer. ok there’s the advertisement. that’s my website. if you go to electric-cosmos.org,you’ll get that. the stuff in white at the lower right handis a, you can, they are clickable links and if you’re interested in the gorydetails of the mathematics involved

in both, the first one is the birkelandcurrent thing that i presented last year.. the second one is the solarsurface transistor action that says what happens if youraise or lower the dam and and, can you curtailthe fast solar wind.. yeah, you can cut it off! just like cutting off a transistor,the solar wind stopped for two days, back about six oreight years ago. the third one is what i’m talking aboutnow, the solar wind acceleration. so anyway, i won’tbore you further.

juergens’ electric sun model explainswhy the plasma corona exists and explains thetemperature profile and i submit that my,what i’ve just told you, the photospheric tufts arevariable electrical barriers for positive ions attemptingto escape from the sun.. explains why there are two very differentsolar winds, one fast and one slow, why the fast wind is fasterand the slow wind is slower, why the electron temperatureis the same in both. because the electrons don’t go throughthat process, they’re just there.

and besides, on the averagethey’re coming in. not that some don’tleave, they do. but they’re not affected bythat, the shoot to shoot, the ski jump and all the rest of thatstuff that the positive ions are. and it explains why tufts go away,because they fill up full of electrons.. and why the first solar windcomes out of coronal holes.. and the stretching of sunspotpunumbra is electrical. anyway, i think that only theelectric sun model can explain this. thank you!

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